Agriculture is a science and discipline that has been integral to the development of mankind as a whole. Agriculture gave birth to the settlement, which would support a large population, which would allow later developments of mathematics and writing. Every single innovation created by humanity all branched out from agriculture. It has been argued by many that agriculture was the first science, and one that many scholars from Rome and Greece would develop into the modern techniques we know today. As with many technological advancements, ones based around agriculture took place in Rome and Greece. One of the innovations that they contributed to agriculture was the use of fertilizers in order to enrich the soil. Though most of the scholars of the time had many bizarre and ritualistic thoughts on farming and plant nutrition that would later prove incorrect, their efforts would still serve as the foundation for scientific development in agriculture that would occur in the Middle Ages.
While Greco-Roman soil fertilization methods would persist all the way until the 19th century, they would learn that many of these techniques were incorrect, and would yield very low crop production. It was around this time, during Alexander the Great’s quest for glory that the horse would also become an integral part of agriculture, as well as many other areas of human interest, including warfare and labor. Horse power would be the one agriculture would rely on to do work for a very long time, until steam engines were introduced.
Jeffry Hill is an agriculture expert who comments on Rome and Greece’s impact on agriculture.